ISBN 0- 7803-1194-9

The INTERNET for SCIENTISTS and ENGINEERS

Brian. J. Thomas

IEEE Press, 1996

CONTENTS

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION   XV
PREFACE   XVII

Why the Internet?   xvii
Is this Book for You?  xviii
How to Read this Book  xix
  
   Formatting and Typesetting Conventions   xix
        Internet Addressing Conventions  xix
        References and Resources   xx
Acknowledgments   xx

PART I: INTERNET ACCESS, TOOLS, AND NAVIGATION

1. INTRODUCTION   3

What Is the Internet?   3
What Can I Do on It?   3
What's in the Internet Toolbox?  4
        The Basic Services  4
        The Extended Services   6

2. GETTING ONLINE

The Business of Internet   7
  
     Who Provides Internet Access?  7
  
     Are You Already Online?  8
Hardware and Software   8
        Basic Hardware   8
        Basic Software   9
        The Internet and Unix   9
        The Internet and Personal Computers   9
Basic Connection Options   10
        Direct Connection   10
        Remote Dial-up Connection  11
        SLIP/PPP Connection   12
        Commercial Online Services   14
What Next?  15
Where to Find Internet Access Providers  16
  
     Lists of Providers Available Online  17
Just the FAQs  17

3. YOUR FIRST LOGON  19

Usemame and Password   19
Your First "Session"  19
Exploring the Host Computer  21
        Where Am I?   21
         Navigating Directories  22
         Looking Inside Directories  22
         Reading File   24
         The finger Command  25
         Logging Out  25
 More Unix Commands   26
         Accessing Online Help  26
         Copying Files   26

         Moving or Renaming Files   27
         Transferring Files via Modem   27
         Deleting File  30
         Stopping a Process  30
Just the FAQs   30

4. ELECTRONIC MAIL

What is E-mail?  33
E-mail Software  33
Addressing and Sending E-mail  34
        Your E-mail Address   35
        Choosing a Usemame (and E-Mail Address)   36
        More about Domains   37
        Sending Messages to Commercial Online Services  37
Common E-mail Elements   39
        Message Header   40
        Message Body   42
        Signatures   42
        Managing E-mail   43
        Return Message Headers   45
        "Bounced" or Undeliverable Mail    46
Composing E-mail Messages   47
        Structural Rules   47
        Netiquette   48
        Propriety  48
        Common Conventions  48
Finding Someone's E-mail Address  50
Macintosh E-mail Software   51
Windows E-mail Software   53
Just the FAQs   55

5. ELECTRONIC MAIL SERVERS   57

Using E-mail to Retrieve Documents   57
        Why Would I Want to Use a Mail Server? 
        Some Examples  57
Where to Find E-mail Servers  58
FTPMail   59
        Getting Help from the FTPMail Server  59
        A Sample FTPMail Session   60
Just the FAQs  62

6. DISCUSSION LISTS   63

Moderated v. Unmoderated Lists  64
Finding Discussion Lists  64
Listservs v. Mailing Lists  64
Listservs  65
  
     Understanding Listservs  65
  
     Understanding Listserv Gateways  66
  
     Subscribing to Listservs  67
        Unsubscribtng to a Listserv, and Other Commands  68
Mailing Lists  68
  
     Subscribing to Mailing Lists   69
Discussion List Netiquette   69
Electronic Journals and Newsletters   70
Just the FAQs   70

7. FILES AND FORMATS   73

ASCII v. Binary   73
        What's the Point?   74
        Document and File Types   74
        Formatted Text   75
        Images and Graphics   75
        PostScript   76
        TeX and Derivatives   77
        Emerging Formats  78
Encoding   79
        When to Use Encoding   79
        Standard Encoding Methods  79
        UUEncoding Files  81
        Decoding Files   83
Compression  84
        Compression Methods   84
        Unix File Compression   85
What's Next?  87
Just the FAQs   87

8. TELNET   89

What Can I Do with Telnet?  89
Remote Login via Telnet   90
        Telnet Command Mode  91
        A Typical Telnet Session   92
        Telnet to a Specific Port  95
        Terminal Emulation   95
        What Is "tn3270"?    96
Troubleshooting   96
Macintosh Telnet Software   97
Windows Telnet Software   98
Just the FAQs   98

9. FTP   99

File Transfer Protocol   99
        Anonymous FTP   99
    What Is a "Mirror Site"?   100
        What Is an "FTP Address"?   100
        Where Do I Find FTP Sites?    100
Connecting to an FTP Site    101
        Essential FTP Commands   101
        Logging In    102
        Displaying and Navigating Directories   103
        Downloading Files   107
        Where Is the File I Transferred?   108
        Ending Your FTP Session   109
        Uploading Files   109
        Transferring Multiple Files   110
        Non-Anonymous FTP    110
Macintosh FTP Software   111
Windows FTP Software   113
Just the FAQs   115

10. USENET NEWS   117

What is Usenet?   117
What Usenet Is Not   118
Newsgroup Naming Conventions   119
Basic Software - The rn Newsreader  120
        Starting Up rn   120
Reading Articles   122
Posting Your Own Articles    124
Command Summary for rn   125
        Software    125
        Command-Line Options    125
        Navigation Options    125
        Message-reading Options    125
Macintosh Usenet Software    126
Windows Usenet Software    130
Just the FAQs   132

11. TOOLS FOR SEARCHING   133

Archie   134
        What and How Archie Searches   134
        Finding Archie   134

        Searching Archie   135
        Customizing Your Archie Search    135
        Some Public Archie Servers    136
Macintosh Archie Software   136
Windows Archie Software   138
Gopher   139

        Why Use Gopher?  140

        Connecting to Gopher   140
        Gopher Menu Items   141

        Gopher Menu Commands   141
  
     Some Gopher Sites Accessible via Telnet   142
        Gophering Around   142
        More on Navigation  148
Macintosh Gopher Software   149
Windows Gopher Software    151
Veronica   153
        Searching with Veronica   153
Just the FAQs    157

12. ONLINE DATABASES  159

WAIS—Wide-Area Information Servers   159
        What Kinds of Resources Are on WAIS Servers?   160
        What's So Great about WAIS?   160
        Accessing WAIS   161
  
     Macintosh and Windows WAIS Software   166
OPACs - Online Public Access Catalogs   166
What Can I Do with an OPAC   166
How to Find OPACs   173
Commercial Databases   173
  
     MELVYL   173
  
     CARL/UnCover    173
  
     Dialog   174
  
     FAXON   174
  
     INSPEC   175
        MEDLINE   175
  
     OCLC   176
  
     Springer-Verlag   176
        Professional Societies   176
        Just the FAQs  177

13. WORLD WIDE WEB   179

What is Hypertext?  179
Behind the Smoke and Mirrors   180
        Clients and Servers on the Web   181
        Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)   181
Web Browsers   182
Surfing the Web   183  
        Line Browsers  183
        Graphical Browsers   186
        Browser Wars  187
        Exploring the Web with Netscape   187
        Colors, Backgrounds, and Imagemaps   189
        Saving Text and Printing    190
Customizing Your Web Browser   190
        Viewing Text and Graphics   190
        Bookmarks and Hotlists   192
        Helper Application   193
Enhanced Web Features   194
        Tables and Frames   194
        Online Forms   197
        Multimedia on the Web   197
Where to Find Netscape Software    198
Searching the Web    198
Just the FAQs    199

PART II: SCIENCE RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET

INTRODUCTION   202

Resource Listings Index    202
Using the Science Resources Guide   203

SCIENCE RESOURCES  206

Aeronautics & Aerospace206
Agriculture   215
Anthropology   220
Archaeology   225

Artificial Intelligence   232

Astronomy & Astrophysics  240
Biology & Biotechnology  256
Chemistry   279
Computer Science   286
Electronics & Electrical Engineering   312
Energy   323
Engineering   329
Geology & Geophysics   342
Imaging Technologies   352
Linguistics   366
Mathematics   373
Medicine   388
Meteorology  406
Oceanography   415
Optics   425
Physics   434
Security   446
Virtual Reality   450

APPENDIX: PERSONAL COMPUTER BASICS    453

Introduction to TCP/IP  453
        SLIP and PPP Connections
        Getting a SLIP or PPP Account
        The Black Art of SLIP/PPP
Connecting Your Macintosh to the Internet   458
        Getting and Setting Up MacTCP
        Getting Started with MacPPP
        Where to Get Macintosh Software
        Commercial Macintosh TCP/IP Software Companies
Connecting Your Windows PC to the Internet    463
        Getting and Setting Up Trumpet TCP Manager
        Setting up SLIP
        Where to Get Windows Software
        Commercial Windows TCP/IP Software Companies

GLOSSARY   470
BIBLIOGRAPHY    484
INDEX   487

ТЕКСТ:
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