Open Systems Handbook: A Guide to Building Open Systems

James Issak, Kevin Lewis, Kate Thompson, Richard Straub

Published by THE IEEE STANDARDS PRESS
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

ABSTRACT

This book is designed to provide interested individuals and organizations with an overview of open systems and the work being done to achieve them. Its focus is on the information and processes that enterprises may use to make strategic decisions about open systems in their organizations.

The book is organized into two sections. Section I presents conceptual and background information about open systems, the open systems arena, and ways in which companies and organizations can most effectively address open systems issues.

Section II includes information on the current status of internationally accepted Industry standards and specifications for open systems. This section is organized using a descriptive model of an open systems environment developed by the IEEE PI 003.0 Working Group, which is developing the Guide to POSIX-based Open System Architecture. This section is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of current standards and specifications or of international standards activities; rather, it is an overview of the work that is widely applicable to most computing environments.

 CONTENTS

Section 1: Open systems explored   1
   
Chapter 1: Introduction  1

    Chapter 2: Open systems: Concept and reality 5
        The evolution of open systems  5
        Definition of an open system   8
             Standard platforms   9
             Networking10
             Availability and accessibility  10
        Relating definitions of open systems 11
        Open systems potential 12
        Standards for open systems  13

    Chapter 3: The open systems environment (OSE)  15
   
     Organizing the discussion   15
   
     Components of the POSIX OSE  15
            Human/computer Interface 16
   
         System  16
   
         Information  17
   
         Communications  17
   
     Other services  17
   
     Aligning products and standards with the OSE model  18

    Chapter 4: Application environment profiles   21
   
     Profile development within standards organizations   24

    Chapter 5: Applying open systems information to your business  29
   
     Steps to implement an open system environment  29
   
         Human factors  32
   
     Using standards In describing applications  32
   
          Profile development   32
   
         Levels of conformance  33
   
         Managing software development  35
   
         Conformance testing of applications  35
   
     Using standards in buying systems   35

Section 2: Elements of an open system  39
   
Chapter 6: The management element 39
   
     Description of current standards work  39
   
     History and current status  40
   
         ISO/IEC management standards activities  40
   
         TCP/IP management activities  43
   
         IEEE P1387, system administration  44
            IEEE P1003.15, batch queuing  44
   
         Open Software Foundation's distributed management environment  44

    Chapter 7: The user interface element  47
   
     IEEE PI 003.2: The shell and utilities working group  48
            Description of IEEE P1003.2 standards  48
   
         Form Interface Management Standard (FIMS)  50
                Description  50
                History and status  51
            X Window System   51
                Description 52
                History and status  51
            Graphical User Interface (GUI)  54
                Motif  54
                OPEN LOOK  5

    Chapter 8: The system services element  57
  
          Languages   57
           Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)  60
               Description 61
               History and current status  68
               POSIX-related International work  69 
          Graphics  69
              GKS  70
              GKS-3D  70
              PHIGS  71
              PEX  72

    Chapter 9: The information and data services element 73
            Data definition and access 73
                Database language standards 73
                Remote database access  75
                Data repository and management systems  76
                Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM)  78
            Document data interchange and processing  78
                The Office Document architecture (ODA) and Office Document Interchange Format (ODIF)  78
                PDES/STEP  82

    Chapter 10: The communications services element  85
            The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)   85
                Description   85
                History and status  86
            Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)  88
                OSI base standard description  88
                History and current status   89
        Selected established or emerging communications standards  94
                ISO/CCITT X.400 (1993), Mail and message handling systems  94
                ISO/CCITT X.500 (1988), Directory services  95
                File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM)  95
                Remote procedure calls  95
                ISO/CCITT X.25 (WAN standard)  96
                Local area network standards  96

    Chapter 11: Other concerns  99
         Security   99
                Communications security  100
                Operating system security  101
        Internationalization  102
        Software Development Environment (SDE) 104 
                Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE)  105
                A Tools Integration Standard (ATIS) 105
                CASE Integration Services (CIS)  105

Appendixes  107

Appendix A: Guide to standards-developing organizations and consortia  107
   
     Organizations and organizational relationships  107
                International organizations: ISO, IEC, and ITU/CCITT  107
                Regional standards organizations: CEC, CEN, CENELEC, ETSI, EWOS, and ECMA 109
                National standards organizations  110
                Government organizations 112
                Industry consortia and user organizations 114

Appendix B: Standards-development organizations  118
   
     International standards-development organizations  118
   
              International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)  118
   
     I       International Organization for Standardization (ISO)  119
   
             International Telecommunication Union (ITU)  121
   
             International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT)  122
   
             ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1)123
   
     Regional standards organizations and workshops  125
   
             Asia-Oceania Workshop (AOW) 125
   
             Comlte European de Normalisation (CEN) 127
   
             Comlte European de Normalisation Electrotechnlque (CENELEC) 128
   
             European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) 129
   
             European Workshop on Open Systems (EWOS) 131
                OSE Implementors' Workshop 133
        National and governmental standards organizations 134
   
             Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X3    135
                Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12   136
                American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  137
                Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) 138
                British Standards Institute (BSI)  140
                Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 141
                Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V. (DIN)  142
                The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the IEEE Computer Society 144
                Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) 145
                NIST Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) 146

        Consortia and user groups 148
                CASE Integration Services (CIS) Standards
Committee 148
                Corporation for Open Systems (COS)149
                X Consortium 151
                Multivendor Integration Architecture Consortium (MIA) 153
                Object Management Group (OMG) 155
                Office Document Architecture Consortium (ODAC)  157
                Open Software Foundation (OSF)  158
                Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC)  160
                SQL Access Group (SAG)  161
                X/Open  162
                UnlForum  164
                Standards Promotion and Application Group (SPAG)  165
                Japanese Promoting Conference for OSI (POSI)  167

Appendix C: Bibliography   169

Appendix D: Glossary of open systems environment/standards-related terms   171

Index  181

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